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Monday, 9 February 2015

Biblical Accuracy and Circumcision on the 8th Day.

Covenant of Abraham. Biblical Accuracy and Circumcision on the 8th Day
Description Brit Milah. Author Cheskel Dovid
Biblical Accuracy and Circumcision on the 8th Day

by Bert Thompson, Ph.D.


In Genesis 17:12, God commanded Abraham to circumcise baby boys on the eighth day of their lives. Why day eight? Is there any good, scientific rationale behind such a command?


The faith of each individual Christian rests upon the bedrock foundation of the Bible’s inspiration. If the Bible is of human origin, then it logically follows that the facts and doctrines found therein are only as reliable as human knowledge can be. However, if the biblical records were provided by the Holy Spirit (2 Peter 1:20-21), then we have every reason to believe that the facts and doctrines recorded therein are free of those imperfections and blemishes that characterize all purely human efforts.

The Greek word used in the New Testament to express the concept of inspiration istheopneustos, and itself derives from two roots—theos, God, and pneustos, breathed (frompneo, to blow or breathe). Theopneustos, therefore, would mean “God-breathed.” The word implies an influence from without producing effects that are beyond natural powers. The proper view of inspiration often is referred to as being verbal (word-for-word) and plenary(complete). This concept suggests that men wrote what God directed, without errors or mistakes, yet with their own personalities reflected in their writings.

A close examination of the Bible reveals startling proof of its inspiration. Sometimes that proof comes in the form of prophecy (always minutely foretold and completely fulfilled). Sometimes the proof comes in the form of scientific facts that were placed in the divine record hundreds or thousands of years before they were known to the modern scientific mind. This brief article deals with the latter—an important piece of scientific foreknowledge found with the biblical text that was completely unknown to man until fairly recently.

In Genesis 17:12, God specifically directed Abraham to circumcise newborn males on theeighth day. Why the eighth day? In 1935, professor H. Dam proposed the name “vitamin K” for the factor in foods that helped prevent hemorrhaging in baby chicks. We now know vitamin K is responsible for the production (by the liver) of the element known as prothrombin. If vitamin K is deficient, there will be a prothrombin deficiency and hemorrhaging may occur. Oddly, it is only on the fifth through the seventh days of the newborn male’s life that vitamin K (produced by bacteria in the intestinal tract) is present in adequate quantities. Vitamin K, coupled with prothrombin, causes blood coagulation, which is important in any surgical procedure. Holt and McIntosh, in their classic work, Holt Pediatrics, observed that a newborn infant has “peculiar susceptibility to bleeding between the second and fifth days of life.... Hemorrhages at this time, though often inconsequential, are sometimes extensive; they may produce serious damage to internal organs, especially to the brain, and cause death from shock and exsanguination” (1953, pp. 125-126). Obviously, then, if vitamin K is not produced in sufficient quantities until days five through seven, it would be wise to postpone any surgery until some time after that. But why did God specify day eight?

On the eighth day, the amount of prothrombin present actually is elevated above one-hundred percent of normal—and is the only day in the male’s life in which this will be the case under normal conditions. If surgery is to be performed, day eight is the perfect day to do it. Vitamin K and prothrombin levels are at their peak. The chart below, patterned after one published by S.I. McMillen, M.D., in his book, None of These Diseases, portrays this in graphic form.

Prothrom Table
Dr. McMillen observed:

We should commend the many hundreds of workers who labored at great expense over a number of years to discover that the safest day to perform circumcision is the eighth. Yet, as we congratulate medical science for this recent finding, we can almost hear the leaves of the Bible rustling. They would like to remind us that four thousand years ago, when God initiated circumcision with Abraham....
Abraham did not pick the eighth day after many centuries of trial-and-error experiments. Neither he nor any of his company from the ancient city of Ur in the Chaldees ever had been circumcised. It was a day picked by the Creator of vitamin K (1984, p. 93).

Moses’ information, as recorded in Genesis 17:12, not only was scientifically accurate, but was years ahead of its time. How did Moses have access to such information? The answer, of course, is provided by the apostle Paul in 2 Timothy 3:16—“Every scripture is inspired of God.”


Holt, L.E. and R. McIntosh (1953), Holt Pediatrics (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts), twelfth edition.

McMillen, S.I. (1984), None of These Diseases (Old Tappan, NJ: Revell).

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Prothrombin time Intervention. Blood plasma after the addition of tissue factor. The gel-like structure is strong enough to hold a steel ball. MeSH D011517
Prothrombin time Intervention. Blood plasma after the addition of tissue factor. The gel-like structure is strong enough to hold a steel ball. MeSH D011517

English: Clotting of human blood plasma after addition of thromboplastin. A gel-like structure is 
formed that is strong enough to hold a steel ball.
Deutsch: Gerinnung von Blutplasma nach der Zugabe von Thromboplastin. Das entstehende 
Gel ist stark genug, um eine Stahlkugel zu halten.
Italiano: Coagulazione di plasma umano dopo l'aggiunta ditromboplastina. 
Si forma una struttura simile a gel talmente resistente da trattenere una sfera di acciaio
SourceOwn work
AuthorDietzel65, Steffen Dietzel

Prothrombin time

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Prothrombin time
Blood plasma after the addition of tissue factor. The gel-like structure is strong enough to hold a steel ball.
The prothrombin time (PT) and its derived measures of prothrombin ratio (PR) and international normalized ratio (INR) are measures of theextrinsic pathway of
coagulation. This test is also called "ProTime INR" and "PT/INR". They are used to determine the clotting tendency of blood, in the measure of warfarin dosage,
liver damage, and vitamin K status. PT measures factors I (fibrinogen)II (prothrombin)VVII, and X. It is used in conjunction with the activated partial
thromboplastin time
 (aPTT) which measures the intrinsic pathway.

Laboratory measurement[edit]

The reference range for prothrombin time depends on the analytical method used, but is usually around 12-13 seconds (results should always be interpreted using
the reference range from the laboratory that performed the test), and the INR in absence of anticoagulation therapy is 0.8-1.2. The target range for INR in
anticoagulant use (e.g. warfarin) is 2 to 3. In some cases, if more intense anticoagulation is thought to be required, the target range may be as high as 2.5-3.5
 depending on the indication for anticoagulation.[1]


The prothrombin time is most commonly measured using blood plasma. Blood is drawn into a test tube containing liquid sodium citrate, which acts as an
anticoagulant by binding the calcium in a sample. The blood is mixed, then centrifuged to separate blood cells from plasma. In newborns, a capillary whole
blood specimen is used.[2]
The plasma is analyzed by a biomedical scientist on an automated instrument at 37°C, which takes a sample of the plasma. An excess of calcium is added
 (thereby reversing the effects of citrate), which enables the blood to clot again. For an accurate measurement the proportion of blood to citrate needs to be fixed;
many laboratories will not perform the assay if the tube is underfilled and contains a relatively high concentration of citrate. If the tube is underfilled or overfilled
with blood, the standardized dilution of 1 part anticoagulant to 9 parts whole blood is no longer valid. For the prothrombin time test the appropriate sample is
sodium citrate tube, which is a liquid anticoagulant.
Tissue factor (also known as factor III) is added, and the time the sample takes to clot is measured optically. Some laboratories use a mechanical measurement,
 which eliminates interferences from lipemic and icteric samples. The prothrombin ratio is the prothrombin time for a patient, divided by the result for control

International normalized ratio[edit]

The result (in seconds) for a prothrombin time performed on a normal individual will vary according to the type of analytical system employed. This is due to the
variations between different batches of manufacturer's tissue factor used in the reagent to perform the test. The INR was devised to standardize the results.
Each manufacturer assigns an ISI value (International Sensitivity Index) for any tissue factor they manufacture. The ISI value indicates how a particular batch
of tissue factor compares to an international reference tissue factor. The ISI is usually between 1.0 and 2.0. The INR is the ratio of a patient's prothrombin time
to a normal (control) sample, raised to the power of the ISI value for the analytical system used.

    \text{INR}= \left(\frac{\text{PT}_\text{test}}{\text{PT}_\text{normal}}\right)^\text{ISI}


The prothrombin time is the time it takes plasma to clot after addition of tissue factor (obtained from animals such as rabbits, or recombinant tissue factor, or from
 brains of autopsy patients). This measures the quality of the extrinsic pathway (as well as the common pathway) of coagulation. The speed of the extrinsic pathway
is greatly affected by levels of functional factor VII in the body. Factor VII has a short half-life and the carboxylation of its glutamate residues requires vitamin K.
 The prothrombin time can be prolonged as a result of deficiencies in vitamin K, warfarintherapy, malabsorption, or lack of intestinal colonization by bacteria
(such as in newborns). In addition, poor factor VII synthesis (due to liver disease) or increased consumption (in disseminated intravascular coagulation) may prolong
 the PT.
The INR is typically used to monitor patients on warfarin or related oral anticoagulant therapy. The normal range for a healthy person not using warfarin is 0.8–1.2,
 and for people on warfarin therapy an INR of 2.0–3.0 usually targeted, although the target INR may be higher in particular situations, such as for those with a
mechanical heart valve. If the INR is outside the target range, a high INR indicates a higher risk of bleeding, while a low INR suggests a higher risk of developing a

For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life. John 3:16.