All articles and research about GOD, on my web sites and this blog are about the ONE TRUE Father GOD, who is the GOD of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.
As are all my articles and research about Jesus, are under His covenant name of the begotten Son’s personal name of Yeshua.
SON of God?
And Hezekiah prayed before the LORD and said: “O LORD, the God of Israel, enthroned above the cherubim, you are THE God, you alone, of all the kingdoms of the earth; you have made heaven and earth. 2 Kings 19:15.
But examine everything carefully; hold fast to that which is good. 1 Thessalonians 5:21.
Friday, 24 June 2016
Sunday, 19 June 2016
ONLY 7 MINUTES LONG.
Monday, 13 June 2016
Dear friends, this weeks investigations for the truth of the Trinity took me to some more shocking info after reading the page of: First Council of Nicaea.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
I read that In 331 Constantine commissioned fifty Bibles for the Church of Constantinople. Please see link below for full article.
True or false? You decide.
However the next part below seems true.
The council of Nicaea dealt primarily WITH THE ISSUE OF THE DEITY OF CHRIST.
In Nicaea, questions regarding THE HOLY SPIRIT WERE left largely unaddressed until after the relationship between the Father and the Son was settled around the year 362. So the doctrine in a more full-fledged form was not formulated until the Council of Constantinople in 360 AD.
As I pointed out before in my article here, the TWO main scriptures that would prove the Trinity as fact, are, I John 5:7-8, and Matthew 28:19
And they have clearly been proved to most definitely be forgeries and this fact is even confirmed by certain Trinitarian Bible Scholars and countless researches.
To add to the Trinity deception and dishonesty, more worms have popped out of the can revealing more forgeries.
Most of the Christian Fathers letters like the Ignatius letters have also been forged to make people believe the first Christian Fathers believed and supported the Trinity. See the link below to a Trinity web site admitting these Ignatius letters as forgeries.
The forgery of I John 5:7-8, was also confirmed as a clear forgery by Newton on the web site www-history.
Now Newton, who felt that his mission was more to study religion than science, certainly did not stop at reading the King James version of the Bible, but rather read all original versions he could, learning the necessary ancient languages. He discovered that the final phrase 'and these three are one' was not present in any Greek version that he studied. Newton came to the conclusion that it was a deliberate addition to the text to provide justification for the doctrine of the Trinity. He wrote down a list of twelve reasons why he was an Arian. Now of course it was not acceptable for people to hold views considered heresy by the Church, so after Newton's death this list, and his other theological writings, were marked "Not fit to be printed". They were stored and were not read by anyone until Keynes acquired them in 1936. SEE LINK BELOW FOR THIS FULL ARTICLE.
As we have read, Newton was one of the best Berean Jews who examined the scriptures daily.
But as you would expect, Newton has still more critics than most, no matter how intelligent a person is like Newton certainly was, the fact cannot be denied, Newton was probably more intelligent than most scientists, scoffers and critics put together, There are very few in the world who have earned themselves a special place for resting their good soul’s at Westminster Abbey.
And yet certain Trinitarians still find a way to discredit Newton because he provides evidence against the mainstream Christianity for believing and revealing the Trinity to be a GREAT hoax and the great apostasy and therefore orthodox Christians use the excuse to completely debunk Newton’s research by reminding us he was playing around with the occult.
Well, the mainstream Christianity may have a point, which in time has become completely blunt as we shall now easily see.
If Newton was correct in believing scriptures like 1 John 5:7–8 were forgeries, and parts of the true scriptures were altered to make GODS SON into GOD Himself then surely there would be other intelligent scientists who would come forward and present similar evidence.
In fact there are many who are also Bible Scholars and agree on these points.
But I do not want to look at what humans say and disprove the Bible, I want to look at what Jesus Himself said who proved by His own words He never claimed to be THE ONE TRUE GOD but instead made it very clear He was and is GODS only begotten SON.
May we quickly turn to John 10:33?
Why did the Jews accuse Jesus for blasphemy?
As we clearly read, the Jews wanted to stone Jesus for blasphemy, because you, being a man, make yourself God.”
Now there are two very simple important facts here which are misunderstood by millions still today.
The fact is, if Jesus was GOD, then what would be wrong with Him claiming to be GOD, as right in front of the peoples eyes, Jesus fulfilled the prophesies, performed great miracles and forgave sins as GOD?
And remember the Jews did believe Jesus was making Himself as GOD.
If I or anyone saw a person doing 100’s of miracles that only Jesus did and could do as He did in front of their eyes, I would have no doubt in believing He was GOD.
Well as we read above: The Jews answered him, “It is not for a good work that we are going to stone you but for blasphemy, because you, being a man, make yourself God.”
So after the Jews saw the 100’s of miracles and good works Jesus performed in front of their very eyes, they confirmed the miracles were not what made them believe Jesus was claiming to be GOD, but it was because He said: I AND THE FATHER ARE ONE.
But why then would the Jews still become so angry with Jesus?
I believe the very fact that the Jews accused Jesus for blasphemy, is clear evidence they were monotheists, the doctrine or belief that there is only ONE GOD, who is ONE PERSON, which was blasphemy in their laws.
The Jews clearly understood ONE very clear important fact, that GOD was ONE GOD, who is ONE PERSON with no GODS BESIDE HIM, which proved the Jews read and knew the countless Old Testament Scriptures below of GOD claiming to be ONE SINGLE PERSON with NO other GOD BESIDE HIM, confirming if Jesus was GOD there would be another GOD beside the ONE TRUE GOD, making TWO GODS side by side which the Jews knew went completely against the Old Testament Scriptures.
or this time I will send the full force of my plagues against you and against your officials and your people, so you may know that THERE IS NO ONE LIKE ME IN ALL THE EARTH.
You were shown these things so that you might know that the LORD is God; BESIDES HIM THERE IS NO OTHER.
"See now that I myself am he! THERE IS NO GOD BESIDES ME. I put to death and I bring to life, I have wounded and I will heal, and no one can deliver out of my hand.
For who is GOD BESIDES THE LORD? And who is the Rock except our God?
"You are my witnesses," declares the LORD, "and my servant whom I have chosen, so that you may know and believe me and understand that I am he. BEFORE ME NO GOD WAS FORMED, NOR WILL THERE BE ONE AFTER ME.
"This is what the LORD says-- Israel's King and Redeemer, the LORD Almighty: I am the first and I am the last; APART FROM ME THERE IS NO GOD.
Do not tremble, do not be afraid. Did I not proclaim this and foretell it long ago? You are my witnesses. IS THERE ANY GOD BESIDES ME? No, there is no other Rock; I know not one."
so that from the rising of the sun to the place of its setting people may know THERE IS NONE BESIDES ME. I am the LORD, AND THERE IS NO OTHER.
This is what the LORD says: "The products of Egypt and the merchandise of Cush, and those tall Sabeans-- they will come over to you and will be yours; they will trudge behind you, coming over to you in chains. They will bow down before you and plead with you, saying, 'Surely God is with you, and THERE IS NO OTHER; THERE IS NO OTHER GOD.'"
For this is what the LORD says-- he who created the heavens, he is GOD; he who fashioned and made the earth, he founded it; he did not create it to be empty, but formed it to be inhabited-- he says: "I am the LORD, AND THERE IS NO OTHER.
Declare what is to be, present it-- let them take counsel together. Who foretold this long ago, who declared it from the distant past? Was it not I, the LORD? And there is NO GOD APART FROM ME, righteous God and a Savior; there is none but me.
Remember the former things, those of long ago; I am God, and there is NO OTHER; I AM GOD, AND THERE IS NONE LIKE ME.
"Now then, listen, you lover of pleasure, lounging in your security and saying to yourself, 'I AM, AND THERE IS NONE BESIDES ME. I will never be a widow or suffer the loss of children.'
Then you will know that I am in Israel, that I am the LORD your GOD, and that there is NO OTHER; never again will my people be shamed.
When Jesus came along, the Jews watched Him perform great miracles and forgive sins and heard Him say the most misunderstood scripture in history still today by millions when Jesus said: I AND THE FATHER ARE ONE.
By this simple statement by Jesus, the Jews clearly did not understand the ONE TRUE GOD was in His SON, and instead the Jews thought Jesus meant He was the GOD and same person, instead of understanding Jesus meant He has ONE purpose with His Father, God – to be in complete agreement, and harmony just as he desires to make all God’s children ONE substance, and it was His Father GOD in Him performing the GREAT miracles.
English Standard Version
Now the evidence that Jesus did not claim to be the same ONE TRUE GOD and His Father, can easily be seen by the very fact Jesus clearly rectified the Jews misunderstanding at the end of their conversion by making it very clear He was not GOD, when He could of very easily said He was GOD, but instead He confirms His DEITY in 4 crystal clear words, by saying,
Here are some simple questions to ask your Trinitarian friends.
If Jesus was the same person as the ONE TRUE GOD, was He too frightened to say He was the ONE TRUE GOD?
If Jesus was the ONE TRUE GOD and the same person, why did He not say He was the ONE TRUE GOD to the Jews in John 10:36, when they accused Him for claiming to be GOD?
If Jesus was GOD and the same person, then why did He CLEARLY tell the Jews countless times throughout his ministry He was the SON, and never ever said He was the ONE TRUE GOD?
If Jesus was the same person as the ONE TRUE GOD, why did He always teach very simple teachings that even children He loved and adored could understand He was the SON of THE GOD?
Did Jesus contradict His own teachings as the Trinity faith would make us believe by teaching He was the SON, but on the other hand is also THE ONE TRUE GOD, which he then hides in a cryptic coded message called a compound unity to confuse millions?
If Jesus was the same and the ONE TRUE GOD, why then did Jesus make the opposite claim, by making this point very clear by saying Himself His Father GOD was the ONLY ONE TRUE GOD in John 17:3?
Notice how Jesus said in John 17:3 above that this is a SALVATION ISSUE, that believing His Father GOD was the only true GOD is ETERNAL LIFE.
Notice in John 17:3 above there is NO mention that we are to believe in the Trinity doctrine and that Jesus is the GOD to be saved, and in fact nowhere in the Bible.
If we be a Berean Jew and look at just some of countless scriptures like Deuteronomy 32:39, and 1 Corinthians 8:6, do we find every scripture teaches the same truth, that GOD the Father is ONE GOD and ONE PERSON and never THREE, persons?
The simple questions above prove the undeniable facts of Jesus being the literal SON of GOD from when He was born from GOD before all creation as the word in John 1:1, which are just some of the 100’s of simple teachings that very easily prove the Trinity faith to be false.
This then brings us back to the Title of this article.
Where And Were The Scriptures Altered By The Church of Constantine?
The million-dollar question still remains, when Constantine commissioned fifty Bibles in 331 for the Church of Constantinople, where and were they altered to add in the Trinity doctrine?
Many believe the scriptures were altered to add in the Trinity doctrine and make Jesus into GOD, which adds up to why: The council of Nicaea dealt primarily with the issue of the deity of Christ In Nicaea and finely made the Trinity into a doctrine in around the year 362.
Trinitarians believe this is not the case as you would expect.
I cannot say this is the case, but what I can say is that if there are TWO main scriptures that would prove the Trinity as I John 5:7-8, and Matthew 28:19, but have clearly been proved to be forgeries or altered, than this terrible deception may consist some truth which would easily explain took place at around the same time Constantine commissioned fifty Bibles which would prove certain scriptures were changed or altered.
Could there be any other evidence that Constantine changed parts of the Bible to make GOD into a TRINITY when he commissioned the fifty Bibles for the Church of Constantinople?
Well, Newton also commented on this by saying: The Scriptures had been altered and early Christian writers had been misquoted to make it appear that Trinitarianism had been the original faith.
The fact of this being true or false can be easily understood by ordinary people like you and me by again being a simple Berean Jew who examined the scriptures daily:
Now these Jews were more noble than those in Thessalonica; they received the word with all eagerness, examining the Scriptures daily to see if these things were so. 1 John 5:7.
We do not need to be a Bible scholar to understand the absolute truth can be seen by the simple contradictions in the Bible itself which also reveals the truth confirming what is true or false, and that truth is the fact that Jesus does not contradict His own teachings as the Trinity doctrine continually does.
Newton’s beliefs and research also seems to line up with the research by others like Allan Cronshaw.
This research is on the web site of reluctant-messenger.com
I have added a small part below.
HAS THE BIBLE BEEN FAITHFULLY PRESERVED?
By Allan Cronshaw
The problem is that, regardless of how much evidence is shown to the majority of modern Christians -- evidence which demonstrates conclusively that the New Testament scriptures were severely altered by the Church of Rome -- they will refuse to acknowledge the facts. Why? Because the majority of modern Christians are a disenfranchised people -- severed from the presence of the indwelling Spirit which is given to the truly faithful disciples in order to teach them -- and they are afraid to deviate from their present-day doctrine and church dogma. In the Living Spiritual Church of the New Covenant that was ordained by the Son of God, all revelation is made directly from God to the faithful congregation. But because the modern believer has been alienated from the very essence of the fundamentals of New Covenant teachings, they fear the spiritual journey associated with the beginning of the walk in The Way. The Son of God calls out to them -- but because they are anchored to this world by the doctrines and traditions of men, they are afraid to actually pick up their own crosses and follow in the Master’s footsteps in The Way..
When directly confronted with the overwhelming evidence and facts with respect to the wholesale corruption of the scriptures, the fundamentalist defensively responds with the rather absurd assertion that "God wrote the King James Version of the Bible". Thus, no amount of rationale will convince them that because we are the prodigal sons of our Heavenly Father, and the Kingdom is within us (Luke 17:21), that all those who truly live a consecrated life will be shown the undefiled Word of God that can be accessed by journeying along the narrow path that opens the "strait gate" that leads to the indwelling Temple (1 Cor 3:16). The great truth which the modern Christian fails to comprehend is that, even in its corrupted form, the Bible as it has been passed down to us is sufficient to manifest the Living Word of God in the life of the individual believer. One only has to open the New Testament to almost any page to find the message: If the believer consecrates their lives -- becomes teachable by releasing their minds from an adherence to the doctrines of men -- forgive and judge no one -- live a simple life that is unencumbered -- do no harm to any of God’s creatures -- and seek in solitude the companionship of the Lord in the inner Temple -- that the Holy Spirit will Anoint and Teach you all the Mysteries of God as the believer begins the journey home to the Kingdom. If the believer begins to live the consecrated Christian life -- free of the thinking and entanglements of this world -- then the indwelling Word will reveal all things to those who are sincere in their search for the Truth.
If it is true that the fourth century Roman Church severely altered the written word of the scriptures, then it is absolutely necessary for the modern believer to search out the facts. Faith in the Word means that if we are a truly faithful people, that the Son of God will open our minds and enlighten us to the Truth. When we therefore ignore the facts, and blindly cling to the error of the corrupt church of Rome, then we inhibit the Lord from teaching us the truth.
If Satan is the god of darkness, then it is Satan who seduces Christians into believing that our scriptures were protected from being altered. Contrary to our many assertions of denial, the historical evidence shows conclusively that this is not the case -- and the Bible no longer represents the original form of the text. Yet, it is only because the modern church no longer possesses the spiritual essence and vision of the original Church that was established in the first century, that the corruption of our scriptures creates a hindrance to the believer in our present time.
FULL ARTICLE BELOW
There is no doubt that there is staggering evidence proving a shocking deception by the enemy making the ONE TRUE GOD into a Trinity. Even a novice like me can clearly see there are many undeniable facts, as we have read above.
Lets have a quick recap.
The doctrine of the trinity was not formulated until the Council of Constantinople in 360 AD.
As that’s clearly the case, then without a doubt this confirms an indisputable fact.
The fact is a HUGE 300 year gap from the time when Jesus and His disciples were on the planet, which proves how plain and easy this is to understand, that the Trinity doctrine was not taught as a doctrine at the time when Jesus and His disciples walked and taught, otherwise there would not be a HUGE gap.
If the first Trinitarians were inspired men of GOD as some would make us believe, then why would they go against GOD and His SON’s commands when they both clearly taught to love each other, turn the other cheek and certainly not kill anyone, but instead many were killed and tortured and their books were burned for not believing and following the Trinity.
If the doctrine of the Trinity was not a doctrine taught by Jesus in the beginning, then how can the Trinity be a doctrine when it was taught by men 100’s of years later?
Who added the two main scriptures of I John 5:7-8, and Matthew 28:19,
They would prove the Trinity, but they are not found in the Greek manuscripts, or have been found to be altered?
See link below:
Who forged: The forged letters of Ignatius, to deceive people into believing the first church Fathers believed in the Trinity?
See link below: The forged letters of Ignatius.
It is clear all the church fathers did not believe in the trinity.
See link below: THE APOSTOLIC FATHERS -- WERE THEY TRINITARIAN? See link below,
Why is It so easy to determine if people like Newton were correct when he said: He was convinced the doctrine of the Trinity was bogus, a successful deception by St. Athanasius in the fourth century?
When we seek we do certainly find rock solid facts as Newton claimed, there was a person called St. Athanasius, who was indeed one of the main Trinitarians to establish the Trinity.
Athanasius is a renowned Christian theologian, a Church Father, the chief defender of Trinitarianism against Arianism, and a noted Egyptian leader of the fourth century.
See link below Athanasius of Alexandria.
It is easy to determine TWO accurate facts, Jesus own words are truly accurate just by doing as He taught when He said SEEK AND YOU WILL FIND. Matthew 7:7.
Most do not seek and simply believe what they were taught, and then remain deceived.
I was one of millions of gullible people, who believed what I was taught.
However it is not to late to seek out the truth and discover THE ONE TRUE GOD and His SON.
If you truly seek and pray humbly with an open heart?
You will make TWO great discoveries.
When you finally discover THE ONE TRUE GOD and His ONE TRUE BEGOTTEN SON, You will discover you have truly been set FREE.
Because you are no longer breaking GODS commands.
And are one of the WISE VIRGINS.
English Standard Version
You will also make a most fearful discovery, and then understand why Jesus said there would be many who confess Him as LORD and do miracles and good deeds in His name but would still hear Him say: I DO NOT KNOW YOU.
They are called THE FOOLISH VIRGINS
Did you know THE FOOLISH VIRGINS are people who break GODS commands, but do not know it.
Which is why Jesus also taught the path to His Kingdom was NARROW, and FEW would find His Kingdom to come.
English Standard Version
This also lines up with what Sir Isaac Newton believed that Roman Catholic Church was misguided in its interpretation of Christianity, and had returned to idolatry. Reff Newton’s Arian beliefs
And on http://arcana.wikidot.com/isaac-newton saying:
Newton felt that belief in the holy trinity was a flagrant violation of the First of the Ten Commandments.
Monday, 6 June 2016
Friday, 3 June 2016
DISCOVER WHAT I DISCOVERED, WHICH NEARLY GAVE ME A HEART ATTACK. Was Sir Isaac Newton Telling The TRUTH, When He Said: The Trinity Was Bogus?
In my last article I added a small part from Sir Isaac Newton, where he believed and said that he was convinced the doctrine of the Trinity was bogus, a successful deception by St. Athanasius in the fourth century.
How can we learn if Sir Isaac Newton was correct? Should we believe people like him and the claims they make, even though he was a highly influential physicist, astronomer, mathematician, philosopher, alchemist and theologian, including one of the best scientist, Bible scholars and Greek expert in his time.
Dr. Thomas G. Barnes said in his book "Newton was perhaps the greatest biblical scholar of his age."
Book, "Science and Biblical Faith," 1993.
My wife and I are going to visit his home in Grantham, Lincolnshire, England, and then his grave where he is buried near the father of evolution Charles Darwin at Westminster Abbey, London.
I will be doing a massive article on Sir Isaac Newton and sharing the photos with you very soon.
I am endeavouring and determined to do some serous research and try to discover who and why Sir Isaac Newton's research which was exposing the Trinity, was hidden and locked away as if people were trying to hide something.
Here we see yet again some more fishy business going on by dishonest people.
This is why it is so vital and not to late, for our own souls to do our research and open our hearts and minds, constantly praying, humbly going to the ONE TRUE GOD through His ONE TRUE SON Jesus to help us learn the truth and ask Him to help us be a Berean Jew, who examined the Scriptures daily to see if these things were so.
1 John 5:7. So it is 'vital to search the scriptures' to see what is true or false.
Therefore, my beloved, as you have always obeyed, so now, not only as in my presence but much more in my absence
work out your own salvation
with fear and trembling.
Our destination of our souls depends on making the right moves to be sure we seek out the truth of GOD and His SON Jesus, otherwise we will be one of the millions of foolish virgins who WILL HEAR Jesus say:
I DO NOT KNOW YOU.
St Paul also made this perfectly clear when he said:
But examine everything carefully;
hold fast to that which is good.
1 Thessalonians 5:21.
Backed up by Jesus when He said:
seek and you will find.
Was Sir Isaac Newton telling the truth?
The question is, how can we be sure people like Sir Isaac Newton were telling the truth and are correct, and people like him are not deceiving us?
Again always remember Jesus words when He said, SEEK AND YOU WILL FIND. Mathew 7:7.
What I discovered about Sir Isaac Newton?
I decided to see if there was a person known as Athanasius, because this was the person Sir Isaac Newton claimed who was successful in the deception of the Trinity in the fourth century.
In just a simple 10-second search on the Internet, caused my heart to miss a beat when I watched the page open up to Athanasius of Alexandria.
As I read on, not only did Athanasius exist, but also the info about Athanasius proved Sir Isaac Newton was absolutely correct.
My simple search on the Internet took me directly to a person called: Athanasius of Alexandria. He lived in the precise time during the First Council of Nicaea of the Roman emperor Constantine the Great, where the Trinity was finely made into a doctrine, well over 300 years after Jesus and His disciples left the planet earth.
The Wikipedia site tells us:
Saint Athanasius of Alexandria (/ˌæθəˈneɪʃəs/; Greek: Ἀθανάσιος Ἀλεξανδρείας, Athanásios Alexandrías; c. 296-298 - 2 May 373), also called Athanasius the Great, Athanasius the Confessor or, primarily in the Coptic Orthodox Church, Athanasius the Apostolic, was the twentieth bishop of Alexandria (as Athanasius I). His episcopate lasted 45 years (c. 8 June 328 - 2 May 373), of which over 17 were spent in five exiles ordered by four different Roman emperors.
As I carried on reading the next part below, I felt like screaming out to my wife for a Defibrillation, to give me a controlled electric shock in order to start my heart beating again.
I then discovered Sir Isaac Newton was most certainly telling the truth.
Athanasius is a renowned Christian theologian, a Church Father, the chief defender of Trinitarianism against Arianism, and a noted Egyptian leader of the fourth century.
Conflict with Arius and Arianism as well as successive Roman emperors shaped Athanasius's career. In 325AC, at the age of 27, Athanasius began his leading role against the Arians as a Deacon and assistant to Bishop Alexander of Alexandria during the First Council of Nicaea. Roman emperor Constantine the Great had convened the council in May-August 325 AC to address the Arian position that the Son of God, Jesus of Nazareth, is of a distinct substance from the Father. Three years after that council, Athanasius succeeded his mentor as archbishop of Alexandria. In addition to the conflict with the Arians (including powerful and influential Arian churchmen led by Eusebius of Nicomedia), he struggled against the Emperors Constantine, Constantius II, Julian the Apostate and Valens. He was known as "Athanasius Contra Mundum" (Latin for Athanasius Against the World).
Nonetheless, within a few years of his death, Gregory of Nazianzus called him the "Pillar of the Church". His writings were well regarded by all Church fathers who followed, in both the West and the East, who noted their rich devotion to the Word-become-man, great pastoral concern, and profound interest in monasticism. Athanasius is counted as one of the four great Eastern Doctors of the Church in the Roman Catholic Church. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, he is labeled the "Father of Orthodoxy". Some Protestants label him "Father of the Canon". Athanasius is venerated as a Christian saint, whose feast day is 2 May in Western Christianity, 15 May in the Coptic Orthodox Church, and 18 January in the other Eastern Orthodox Churches. He is venerated by the Oriental and Eastern Orthodox Churches, the Roman Catholic Church, the Lutherans, and the Anglican Communion.
Athanasius of Alexandria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
However on my research I also discovered there are more people who go back further in time like Justin Martyr and Ignatius of Antioch who were the first to support the Trinity from about 110AC, which means the trinity was not spoken or heard about for 77 years, since that is, If Jesus was crucified in 33 ad.
It seems a fact, the trinity doctrine was most certainly not fully developed into a doctrine until the late forth century, and as we have just read by the chief defender of Trinitarianism at the Council of Nicaea.
This fact shocks me to why millions follow a doctrine created by man and not by GOD and His Son Jesus.
Sir Isaac Newton said:
The word God is nowhere in the scriptures used to signify more than one of the three persons at once.
This research takes time, and as I continue seeking out the truth, regarding the first Trinity teachers, I will continue to share my research with you in other coming articles, because I do not want you to be deceived, but be saved.
Join me again in my next article as I am continuing with the many
Scriptures used by Trinitarians which they clearly use to contradict their own faith by finding scriptures to prove their God is NOT ONE GOD but are THREE Gods, SIDE by SIDE, called the TRINITY.
In the mean time, I would like to leave you with some wonderful research I read recently below under the links below: The History of The Doctrine of the Trinity The True Scriptural Picture.
The History of The Doctrine of the Trinity
The True Scriptural Picture
"For there is ONE GOD and one mediator between God and men,
the MAN Christ Jesus" -
1 Tim. 2:5
The history of religion has always been one of degeneration from the originally revealed pure monotheism to various forms of polytheism. "Christianity," as popularly known, has been no exception.
The Bible, in both Old and New Testaments, is very emphatic about the absolute oneness of God. When asked which is the first commandment of all?"
Jesus answered (Mark 12:29) -
"The first of all the commandments is; Hear, O Israel, THE LORD OUR GOD IS ONE LORD."
He was quoting from the words of Moses in Deut. 6:4. This is the consistent story of the Bible. There is not a word about three gods in it from beginning to end.
"Christendom" today has degenerated to a belief in four gods, three good ones and one evil one. Some parts of Christendom have five gods, as the Roman Catholic Church, which has added a "Mother of God" who is in their system of belief the supreme deity beside a host of demi-gods, one for every day of the year (and more), all of which mythical and man-invented deities are worshipped and prayed to.
The doctrine of the Trinity is this -
"We worship one God in Trinity, and Trinity in Unity; neither confounding the persons; nor dividing the substance. For there is one Person of the Father; another of the Son, and another of the Holy Ghost.
"But the Godhead of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, is all one: the Glory equal, the Majesty co-eternal. Such as the Father is, so is the Son, and such is the Holy Ghost.
"The Father uncreate, the Son uncreate, and the Holy Ghost uncreate. The Father incomprehensible, the Son incomprehensible, and the Holy Ghost incomprehensible. The Father eternal, the Son eternal, and the Holy Ghost eternal.
"And yet there are not three eternals, but one eternal. Also there are not three incomprehensibles, not three uncreated: but one uncreated, and one incomprehensible.
"So likewise the Father is Almighty, the Son Almighty and the Holy Ghost Almighty. And yet there are not three Almighties, but one Almighty.
"So the Father is God, the Son is God, and the Holy Ghost is God. And yet there are not three Gods: but one God.
"So likewise the Father is Lord, the Son Lord, and the Holy Ghost Lord. And yet not three Lords but one Lord.
"For like as we are compelled by the Christian verity to acknowledge every person by himself to be God and Lord; so we are forbidden by the Catholic religion to say, There be three Gods, or three Lords.
"The Father is made of none; neither created, nor begotten. The Son is of the Father alone: not made, nor created, but begotten. The Holy Ghost is of the Father and of the Son; neither made, nor created, nor begotten, but proceeding.
"So there is one Father, not three Fathers; one Son, not three Sons: one Holy Ghost, not three Holy Ghosts.
"And in this Trinity none is afore, or after other, none is greater or less than others; but the whole three persons are co- eternal together; and co-equal. So that in all things as is aforesaid: the Unity in Trinity, and the Trinity in Unity is to be worshipped.
"HE THEREFORE THAT WILL BE SAVED MUST THUS THINK OF THE TRINITY."
This is the prize and tragic example of the natural mind of man speculating upon divine things rather than being content to humbly accept the simple testimony of Scripture.
In all Scripture, there is nothing to justify this absurd and self-contradictory mizmaze. While truly we can never hope with mortal minds to comprehend God, still the revelations He gives of Himself, and of His Son, and of His Holy Spirit - His power and presence which fills all immensity and works His will - is clear and simple and reasonable and a tremendously satisfying relief from the befuddled speculations as quoted above.
The doctrine of the "Trinity" is nowhere found in the Bible. The following quotations from recognized historians will give the background of the period in which this doctrine was developed, showing the general conditions of Christendom of the time, the philosophic influences at work, the methods of reasoning and argument used and the political forces that finally established the doctrine and enforced it by confiscation, prohibition, punishment and murder.
This will clearly show the frail, human foundation the doctrine of the Trinity rests on, and dissipate the weight it appears to have from centuries of "orthodox" acceptance.
COUNCIL OF NICEA
Of the Council of Nicea, 325 A.D., where the doctrine of the Trinity was first officially formulated, the well-known trinitarian historian Mosheim, a Lutheran, admits (Century 4, Part 2, Chapter 3, Section 1)
"....the discussions concerning the three persons in the Godhead, among those who approved the decisions of the council of Nice.
"There is so little clearness and discrimination in these discussions, that they seem to rend the one God into three Gods.
"Moreover, those idle fictions, which a regard for the prevailing opinions of the day had induced most theologians to embrace, even before the time of Constantine, were now in various ways confirmed, extended and embellished.
"Hence it is that we see on every side evident traces of excessive veneration for saints in heaven, of belief in a fire to purify souls on leaving the body, of partiality for priestly celibacy, the worship of images and relics, and for many other opinions which, in process of time, almost banished the true religion, or at least very much obscured and corrupted it.
"Genuine piety was gradually supplanted by a long train of superstitious observances, which were derived partly from a preposterous disposition to adopt profane rites.
"To the temples, to water consecrated with certain forms, and to likenesses of holy men, the same efficacy was ascribed and the same privileges assigned, as had been attributed to the pagan temples, statues and lustrations before the advent of Christ."
This is a trinitarian's description of conditions in the Catholic Church during the time the doctrine of the Trinity was being formulated and imposed.
In the same chapter, Section 5, Mosheim says:
"The doctors who were distinguished for their learning explained the sacred doctrines after the manner of Origen (see notes below on Origen) on whom they fixed their eye - in accordance with the principles of that philosophy which they learned in their youth at school, namely, the Platonic philosophy as corrected by Origen.
"Those who wish to get a full insight into this subject may examine Gregory Nazianzen among the Greeks and Augustine among the Latins who were regarded in the subsequent ages as the only patterns worthy of imitation, and may be fitly styled, next to Origen, the parents and supporters of philosophic or scholastic theology. They were both admirers of Plato."
Plato was the heathen Greek philosopher (around 400 B.C.) who popularized the Egyptian doctrine of the immortality of the soul. He was the brightest star and greatest influence in the pagan system of philosophy that Christianity in its original purity set out to combat (See 1 Cor., chapters 1 and 2).
But Platonic philosophers became dominent in the Catholic Church, and Platonic philosophy has dominated the beliefs of "orthodox" Christendom from the 3rd century A.D. to the present. The earliest Christians bitterly fought heathen philosophy; the later "Christians" adopted it.
Origen, mentioned by Mosheim as influential in this Platonizing movement (around 200-250 A.D.), was one of the greatest (and perhaps the greatest) influences in establishing this trend in the Church. Of him, Mosheim says (Cent. 2, Part 2, Chap. 1, Sec. 5) -
"A new class of philosophers had grown up in Egypt ...they much preferred Plato, and embraced most of his dogmas concerning God, the human soul, and the universe.
"This philosophy was adopted by such of the learned at Alexandria as wished to be accounted Christians, and yet to retain the rank of philosophers. All those who in this century presided in the schools of the Christians at Alexandria are said to have approved it."
Translator's footnote at this place in Mosheim -
"This cultivation of philosophy by Christian teachers greatly displeased those who were attached to the ancient simple faith, as taught by Christ and his apostles; for they feared, what afterwards actually happened, that the purity and excellence of divine truth would suffer by it. The issue of the long contest between them was that the advocates of philosophy prevailed."
Continuing Mosheim, Sec. 7 -
"This mode of philosophizing received some modification when Ammonius Saccas laid the foundation of that sect which is called the New Platonic."
"The grand objects of Ammonius, to bring all sects and religions into harmony, required him to do much violence to the sentiments and opinions of all parties, philosophers, priests and Christians - and particularly by allegorical interpretations. He assumed... that the public religions of all nations should be corrected by this ancient (Platonic) philosophy.
Section 9 -
"With these Egyptian notions, he united the philosophy of Plato...Finally, the dogmas of other sects he construed, as far as was possible, by means of art, ingenuity and the aid of allegories into apparent coincidence with Egyptian and Platonic principles"
"This new species of philosophy, imprudently adopted by Origen and other Christians, did immense harm to Christianity. For it led the teachers of it to involve in philosophic obscurity many parts of our religion which were in themselves plain and easy to be understood; and to add to the precepts of the Savior no few things of which not a word can be found in the holy Scriptures...
"And finally it alienated the minds of many, in the following centuries, from Christianity itself, and produced a heterogeneous species of religion, consisting of Christian and Platonic principles combined. And who is able to enumerate all the evils and injurious changes which arose from this new philosophy - from this attempt to reconcile true and false religions with each other?"
Editor's footnote at this place in Mosheim -
"That philosophy has injured enormously genuine Christianity will be readily conceded by all who rest faith solely upon the rock of Scripture.
"When such persons are asked to account for the existence of religious principles and usages which are incapable of proof from the sacred volume, and even seem at variance with it, they have only to cite the semi-Christian school of philosophy which arose at Alexandria before the second century closed."
(It will be noted from the quotation on pg. 4 that the most distinguished "Christian" teachers of the 4th century looked to Origen and the Platonic philosophy as their model. Any doctrines therefore - such as the Trinity - formulated at this time are bound to be more pagan than Christian.)
Returning to Mosheim's history of the 4th century, he records concerning the conduct and character of the church leaders (Cent.4, Part 2, Chap. 2, Sec. 5) -
"The bishop of Rome took precedence over all others of the episcopal order. He exceeded all other bishops in the splendor of the church over which he presided, in the magnitude of his revenues and possessions, and in the sumptuousness and magnificence of his style of living.
"These marks of power and worldly greatness were so fascinating to the minds of Christians even in this age that often the most obstinate and bloody contests took place at Rome when a new pontiff was to be created.
"A shocking example of this is afforded by the disturbance at Rome in the year 366. The contention caused a cruel war, great loss of life, conflagrations and battles."
Section 8 -
"The vices of the clergy, especially of those who officiated in large and opulent cities, were augmented in proportion to the increase of their wealth, honors and advantages. The bishops had shameful quarrels among themselves respecting the extent of their jurisdiction and boundaries; and while they trampled on the rights of the people and of the inferior clergy, they vied with the civil governors of provinces in luxury, arrogance and voluptuousness."
Cent. 4, Part 2, Chap. 3, Sec. 17:
"When there was nothing any longer to be feared from enemies without; when the character of most bishops was tarnished with arrogance, luxury, effeminacy, animosity, resentments, and other defects; when the lower clergy neglected their proper duties and were more attentive to idle controversies than to the promotion of piety and the instruction of the people; when vast numbers were induced, not by a rational conviction but by the fear of punishment and the hope of worldly advantage to enrol themselves as Christians - how can it surprise us that on all sides the vicious appeared a host, and the pious a little band almost overpowered by them?...
"The more honorable and powerful could sin with impunity, and only the poor and the unfortunate felt the severity of the laws."
Such is a trinitarian historian's testimony concerning the times in which the doctrine of the Trinity was developed on the admitted basis of human speculation and Platonic philosophy. Of the methods of argument and persuasion used by the church leaders of this period, Mosheim says -
Cen. 4, Part 2, Chap. 3, Sec. 7 -
"From the disputes with those who were regarded as opposed to divine truth, the ancient simplicity had nearly taken its flight; and in place of it, dialectical subtleties and quibbles, invectives and other disingenuous artifices had succeeded."
Section 8 -
"With the ancient form of discussion, new sources of argument were in this age combined. For the truth of doctrines was proved by the number of martyrs who had believed so, by prodigies and by the confessions of devils, that is, of persons in whose bodies some demon was supposed to reside.
"The discerning cannot but see that all proofs drawn from such sources are very fallacious, and very convenient for dishonest men who would practice imposition.
"And I greatly fear that most of those who at this time resorted to such proofs, though they might be grave and eminent men, may be justly charged with a dangerous propensity to use deception.
"Ambrose, in controversy with the Arians, brings forward persons possessed with devils, who are constrained, when the relics of Gervasius and Protasius are produced, to cry out that the doctrine of the Nicene council concerning three persons in the Godhead is true and divine, and the doctrine of the Arians false and pernicious.
"This testimony of the prince of darkness Ambrose regards as proof altogether unexceptionable."
Section 16 -
"To these defects in the moral system of the age must be added two principal errors now almost publicly adopted, and from which afterwards immense evils resulted. The first was that to deceive and lie is a virtue, when religion can be promoted by it.
"This principle had been embraced in the preceding centuries, and it is almost incredible what a mass of the most insipid fables and what a host of pious falsehoods have through all the centuries grown out of it, to the great detriment of true religion.
"If some inquisitive person were to examine the conduct and the writings of the greatest and most pious teachers of this century, I fear that he would find about all of them infected with this leprosy. I cannot except Ambrose, nor Hilary, nor Augustine, nor Gregory Nazianzen, nor Jerome."
Such were the principles of the men who formulated the doctrine of the Trinity, and with the aid of the civil power imposed it upon the whole body of believers on pain of severe punishment, as we shall see in later quotations.
Of the general conditions of worship in this century, Mosheim says (Cent. 4, Part 2, Chap. 4, Sec. 1)
"The Christian bishops introduced, with but slight alterations, into the Christian worship, those rites and institutions by which formerly the Greeks and Romans and others had manifested their piety and reverence toward their imaginary deities; supposing that the people would more readily embrace Christianity if they perceived the rites handed down to them from their fathers still existing unchanged among the Christians, and saw that Christ and the martyrs were worshipped in the same manner as formerly their gods were.
"There was, accordingly, little difference in these times between the public worship of the Christians and that of the Greeks and Romans. In both there were splendid robes, mitres, tiaras, wax-tapers, crosiers, processions, lustrations, images, golden and silver vases, and innumerable other things.
"No sooner had Constantine renounced the religion of his ancestors than magnificent temples were everywhere erected, adorned with pictures and images, and both in external and internal form very similar to the temples of the gods. True religion copied after superstition."
Section 4 -
"The prayers fell off greatly from the ancient simplicity and majesty, a considerable degree of vain inflation being admitted into them. The public discourses, among the Greeks especially, were formed according to the rules for civil eloquence, and were better adapted to call forth the admiration of the rude multitude who love display, than to amend the heart.
"And that no folly or senseless custom might be omitted in their public assemblies, the people were allowed to applaud their orators, as had been practiced in forums and theatres; nay, were bidden to clap besides.
"Who would suppose that men who were appointed to show to others the emptiness of all human things would become so senseless?"
Is it reasonable to expect any sound fruit from such a rotten tree?
The Encyclopedia Britannica, 9th edition, vol. 16, page 774, article "Montanism," says -
"From the middle of the second century a change began to take place in the outward circumstances of Christianity. Should the church take the decisive step into the world? Or ought she, on the other hand to remain as she had been at first, a society of religious devotees, separated and shut out from the world by a rigorous discipline?
"It was natural that warning voices should then be raised in the church against secular tendencies, that the well-known counsels about the imitations of Christ should be held up in their literal strictness before worldly Christians, that demands should be made for a restoration of the old discipline and severity, and for a return to apostolic simplicity and purity.
"The church as a whole, however, decided otherwise. She marched through the open door into the Roman state. With the aid of its philosophy she created her new Christian theology."
The cornerstone of this "new Christian theology', based on pagan philosophy, is the doctrine of three Gods, three Persons in the "Godhead."
How this doctrine of the Trinity was developed during this period is frankly explained by a trinitarian writer in the Encyclopedia Britannica, 9th edition, Volume 23, page 240, article "Theism" -
"The propositions constitutive of the dogma of the Trinity - the propositions in the symbols of Nice, Constantinople and Toledo relative to the immanent distinctions and relations in the Godhead - were not drawn directly from the New Testament, and could not be expressed in New Testament terms. They were the products of reason speculating on a revelation to faith.
"They were only formed through centuries of effort, only elaborated by the aid of the conceptions and formulated in the terms of Greek and Roman metaphysics.
"The evolution of the doctrine of the Trinity was far the most important fact in the doctrinal history of the church during the first five centuries of its post- apostolic existence."
Surely the ignorance and audacity of this, from a scriptural point of view, takes our breath away! How terribly true and fitting are the words of Jude -
"It was needful for me to write unto you, and exhort you that ye should earnestly contend for the faith which was once delivered unto the saints."
And Paul said -
"I have not shunned to declare unto you the whole counsel of God" (Acts 20:27).
And to the Corinthians -
"Hath not God made foolish the wisdom of this world, for after that, in the wisdom of God, the world by wisdom knew not God, it pleased God by the foolishness of preaching to save them that believe" (1 Cor. 1:20).
Poor Jude! Poor Paul! What back numbers they were! Of course they could not understand that there were three Gods. They only had the inspiration of God - they completely lacked that essential aid-Greek and Roman metaphysics, without which the doctrine of three Gods could not be formulated.
The "Greek and Roman metaphysics" from which the doctrine of the Trinity was adopted, are referred to by Gibbon in his "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire" Chapter 21, paragraph 6 -
"The genius of Plato, informed by his own meditation or by the traditional knowledge of the priests of Egypt, had ventured to explore the mysterious nature of the Deity.
"When he had elevated his mind to the sublime contemplation of the first self-existent, necessary cause of the universe, the Athenian sage was incapable of conceiving how the simple unity of his essence could admit the infinite variety of distinct and successive ideas which compose the model of the intellectual world; how a Being purely incorporeal could execute that perfect model, and mould with a plastic hand the rude and independent chaos.
"The vain hope of extricating himself from these difficulties, which must ever oppress the feeble powers of the human mind, might induce Plato to consider the divine nature under the threefold modification-of the first cause, the reason or Logos, and the soul or spirit of the universe. His poetic imagination sometimes fixed and animated these metaphysical abstractions; the three archial or original principles were represented in the Platonic system as three Gods, united with each other by a mysterious and ineffable generation."
It is clear from this, as the trinitarian writer said in the Encyclopedia Britannica, that Christianity had to go to Greek metaphysics (and this term always means Plato, the center of the system) to formulate its doctrine of the Trinity. Surely we are compelled to wonder what Christianity could possibly have done without the help of the indispensable heathen philosopher Plato!
Mosheim (an esteemed, orthodox Lutheran trinitarian) describes the long civil war that attended the development of the doctrine, and its enforcement by civil power, finally ending in trinitarian triumph through the stern and energetic measures of the Emperor Theodosius (Cent. 4, Chap. 5, sec. 14) -
"After the death of Constantine the Great 337 AD) one of his sons, Constantius, the emperor of the East was very partial to the Arian cause, but Constantine and Constans (two other sons) supported, in the western parts where they governed, the decisions of the Nicene council.
"Constantius, being devoted to the Arians, involved the friends of the Nicene council in numerous evils and calamities. The Nicene (trinitarian) party made no hesitation to return the same treatment.
"Julian (the next emperor) had no partialities for either. Jovian espoused the orthodox sentiments. Valentinian adhered to the decisions at Nice, and therefore in the West the Arian sect - a few churches excepted - was wholly extirpated.
"Valens, on the contrary, took sides with the Arians, and hence in the East many calamities befell the orthodox. Gratian restored peace to the orthodox.
"After him, Theodosius the Great, by depriving the Arians of all their churches, caused the decisions of the Nicene council to triumph everywhere, and none could any longer publicly profess Arian doctrines."
This finely settled the question, for all time, as to whether there are three Gods, or one God. The Encyclopedia Britannica' 9th edition, vol. 23, page 259, article "Theodosius," records -
"It was not, however, till his illness at Thessalonica that the emperor received baptism at the hands of Bishop Ascholius, whereupon, says the historian Sozomen, he issued a decree (February, 380) in favor of the faith of St. Peter and Pope Damasus of Rome.
"This was to be the true catholic faith; the adherents of other creeds were to be reckoned as heretics and punished.
"Other edicts forbade the unorthodox to hold assemblies in the towns and enjoined the surrender of all churches to the catholic bishops."
Gibbon records, chap. 27 -
"Theodosius was the first of the emperors baptized into the true faith of the Trinity. As the emperor ascended from the holy font, he dictated a solemn edict:
"Let us believe the sole deity of the Father, the Son and - the Holy Ghost, under an equal majesty and a pious Trinity.
"We authorize the followers of this doctrine to assume the title of Catholic Christians; and as we judge that all others are extravagant madmen, we brand them with the infamous name of Heretics, and declare that their conventicles shall no longer usurp the respectable appellation of churches.
"Besides the condemnation of Divine Justice, they must expect to suffer the severe penalties, which our authority, guided by heavenly wisdom, shall think proper to inflict upon them!
"The emperor convened a synod of 150 bishops who proceeded to complete the theological system which had been established in the council of Nice.
"A final and unanimous sentence was pronounced to ratify the equal Deity of the Holy Ghost.
"Their knowledge of religious truth may have been preserved by tradition, or it may have been communicated by inspiration, but the sober evidence of history will not allow much weight to the personal authority of the Fathers of Constantinople (this synod).
"Many of the same prelates who now applauded the orthodox piety of Theodosius had repeatedly changed, with prudent flexibility, their creeds and opinions, and in the various revolutions of the church and state, the religion of their sovereign was the rule of their obsequious faith.
"In the space of 15 years Theodosius promulgated at least 15 severe edicts against the heretics, more especially against those who rejected the doctrine of the Trinity.
"The rigorous prohibition of conventicles was carefully extended to every possible circumstances in which the heretics could assemble with the intention of worshipping God and Christ according to the dictates of their conscience.
“The sectaries were gradually disqualified for the possession of honorable or lucrative employments..."
|First Council of Nicaea|
16th-century fresco depicting the Council of Nicaea
|Date||20 May to 19 June, AD 325|
|First Council of Constantinople|
|Convoked by||Emperor Constantine I|
|President||Hosius of Corduba (and Emperor Constantine)|
|Attendance||318 (traditional number)|
250–318 (estimates) — only five from Western Church
|Topics||Arianism, the nature of Christ, celebration of Passover (Easter), ordination of eunuchs, prohibition of kneeling on Sundays and from Easter to Pentecost, validity of baptism by heretics, lapsed Christians, sundry other matters.|
Documents and statements
|Original Nicene Creed, 20 canons, and a synodal epistle|
And does this agree with an article I sent out revealing about Constantine? Lets see below.
Fifty Bibles of Constantine
I have thought it expedient to instruct your Prudence to order fifty copies of the sacred Scriptures, the provision and use of which you know to be most needful for the instruction of the Church, to be written on prepared parchment in a legible manner, and in a convenient, portable form, by professional transcribers thoroughly practised in their art.
Such were the emperor's commands, which were followed by the immediate execution of the work itself, which we sent him in magnificent and elaborately bound volumes of a threefold and fourfold form.
- Codices were prepared in three or four volumes – Bernard de Montfaucon;
- Codices were sent in three or four boxes – F. A. Heinichen;
- Codices were prepared in with three or four folios – Scrivener;
- Text of the codices was written in three or four columns per page – Tischendorf, Gebhardt, and Gregory, Kirsopp Lake;
- Codices were sent by threes or fours.
Codex Sinaiticus and Vaticanus
- Eusebius, The Life of the Blessed Emperor Constantine, Bk 4, Ch 36 Constantine's letter of commission
- McDonald & Sanders, pp.414–415
- Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Book of Judith". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.: Canonicity: "..."the Synod of Nicaea is said to have accounted it as Sacred Scripture" (Praef. in Lib.). It is true that no such declaration is to be found in the Canons of Nicaea, and it is uncertain whether St. Jerome is referring to the use made of the book in the discussions of the council, or whether he was misled by some spurious canons attributed to that council"
- Vita Constantini, IV,36
- Vita Constantini, IV,37
- Apologia ad Constantium 4
- Apologia Ad Constantium/Chapter 4
- Elliott, p. 284.
- Novum Testamentum Graece ad Antiquissimos Testes Denuo Recensuit, Tischendorf, Editio Octava Critica Maior, Leipzig 1884, vol. III, p. 348
- Pierre Batiffol, Codex Sinaiticus, w DB. 1, 1883-1886.
- Scrivener, vol. 1. pp. 118-119.
- Westcott & Hort, p.74.
- Gregory, pp.327, 345
- Gregory, Caspar René (1900). Textkritik des Neuen Testaments 1. Leipzig. p. 22.
- Gardthausen, pp.124–125.
- Kirsopp Lake, pp.32-35
- Schumacher, p.47
- Skeat, pp.583–625
- Metzger, Bruce M.; Ehrman, Bart D. (2005). The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration (4th ed.). New York – Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 15–16.
- Elliott, James Keith, The collected biblical writings of T.C. Skeat, Dating and Origin of Codex Vaticanus
- Gardthausen, Victor, Griechische paleographie, 2 vol., Leipzig, 1913
- Gregory, Caspar René, The Canon and Text of the New Testament (Edinburgh 1907)
- Lake, Kirsopp, The Sinaitic and Vatican manuscripts and the copies sent by Eusebius to Constantine, Harvard Theological Review, vol. XI (1918)
- McDonald & Sanders, The Canon Debate
- Price, I. M. (1923), The Ancestry of Our English Bible an Account of Manuscripts, Texts and Versions of the Bible, Sunday School Times Co, s. 146 f.
- Schumacher, Heinrich, A handbook of Scripture study (1922)
- Scrivener, Frederick Henry Ambrose, A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament, George Bell & Sons, London (1894)
- Skeat, Teodor Cressy, The Codex Sinaiticus, The Codex Vaticanus and Constantine, Journal of Theological Studies 50 (1999)
- Westcott & Hort, Introduction to the New Testament in the Original Greek (Harper & Brothers: New York, 1882)